|5550 BC||5550 BC - 3050 BC was the Predynastic Period. |
Between 5500 and 3100 BC, during Egypt's Predynastic Period, small settlements flourished along the Nile. Before the first Egyptian dynasty, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper Egypt (Ta Shemau) and Lower Egypt (Ta Mehu).
The notable rulers of Egypt were the mysterious 'Scorpion' and Narmer
Discovery of a "Scorpion" tomb at Abydos. King Scorpion was believed to have ruled Upper Egypt and lived just before or during the rule of Narmer at Thinis
Egypt was undergoing the process of political unification. The Egyptian capital at the time was Thinis
The Thinite kings are buried at Abydos
The Egyptian people adhered to the Horus cult
|3050 BC||3050 BC - 2686 BC - Early Dynastic Period|
1st and 2nd Egyptian Dynasties
The First and second dynasties ruled Egypt and began using hieroglyphics. King Menes aka Hor-Aha whose Horus name was Narmer, is considered to be the founder of the first Dynasty.
Large tombs of pharaohs or kings found at at Abydos, Naqada and Saqqara
Memphis, in Lower Egypt, was established as the capital of Egypt, founded around 3100 BC and is the legendary city of Menes, the King who united Upper and Lower Egypt.
|2686 BC||The Old Kingdom "the Age of the Pyramids." was established 2686 BC - 2181 BC|
3rd - 6th Egyptian Dynasties
Notable Pharaohs were Djoser - 2668 - 2649, Sneferu aka Snefru - 2613-2589 and Khufu aka Cheops 2589 - 2566 and Unas aka Wenas, Unis- 2375 - 2345
Djoser established his court at Memphis.
The Old Kingdom is famous for the large number of pyramids, which were constructed at this time as the burial places of Pharaohs.
|2686 BC||The 3rd Dynasty - The first Egyptian pyramid is built by Imhotep - the Step Pyramid at Saqqara for King Djoser who was one of the kings of the 3rd Dynasty|
|2613 BC||The 4th dynasty - The Great Pyramids of Egypt were built at Giza and revered as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. |
Sneferu aka Snefru - 2613-2589, the founder of the fourth dynasty, is known to have commissioned three pyramids.
Khufu (Greek Cheops) 2589 - 2566 erected the Great Pyramid of Giza
|2498 BC||The 5th dynasty - Egyptian religion made several important changes and cult of the god Ra gained in importance|
The kings from Userkaf 2498 - 2491 through to Pharaoh Menkauhor 2422 - 2414 built temples dedicated to Ra at Abusir.
King Unas aka Wenas, Unis- 2375 - 2345 (the last ruler of the 5th Dynasty) had the burial chamber in his pyramid inscribed with spells for the afterlife and the cult of Osiris. These are referred to as the Pyramid Texts - later used and adapted to become the basis of the Book of the Dead
|2354 BC||The 6th dynasty - The 6th Dynasty was founded by Teti|
Pharaoh Pepy II is credited with the longest reign in the history of Egypt of 94 years
Nitiqret (also known by the Greek name Nitocris), is believed to have not only been the first female ruler of and Queen of Egypt
|2181 BC||2181 BC - 2040 BC - First Intermediate Period|
7th - 10th Egyptian Dynasties
During this time Egypt saw a breakdown of central government
Qakare Ibi is the only Pharaoh that can connected to any monuments. His pyramid has been found at Saqarra and contains pyramid texts on the walls of his tomb
|2040 BC||2040 BC - 1782 BC the Middle Kingdom|
11th - 13th - Egyptian Dynasties
The Pharaohs of these dynasties during the period of the Middle Kingdom were based at Thebes
In the reign of Amenemhet (1991 BC – 1962 BC) launched at least one campaign into Nubia
Senusret I (1971 BC – 1926 BC) recaptured Nubia
Amenemhat II (1929 BC – 1895 BC) waged war in the Levant
Senusret III (1878 BC – 1839 BC) referred to as a warrior-king also built a temple at Abydos
|1782 BC||1782 BC - 1570 BC the Second Intermediate Period|
14th - 17th Egyptian Dynasties
Hyksos raiders from Asia led by Amenemhat III gained power and moved into the Delta and introduced the Egyptians to the chariot
|1570 BC||1570 BC - 1070 BC the New Kingdom|
18th - 20th - Egyptian Dynasties
The building of the tombs of the Valley of Kings. The great Pharaohs included Hatshepsut (the famous female Pharaoh), Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Tuthmose and Ramses II. King Akhenaten established a new religious order worshipping the sun god Aten. King Thutmose III 1479 -1425 and Ancient Egypt reached the height of its power when military expeditions brought the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea under Egyptian rule
|1070 BC||1070 BC - 525 BC the Third Intermediate Period|
21st - 25th - Egyptian Dynasties - the Nubians conquer Egypt under the command of Piankhy and restore traditional values and religion
Nehesey (or Nehesi) was Pharaoh and his name means 'Nubian'
The Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty were finally expelled from Egypt
|672 BC||672BC - 332 BC the Late Period|
26th - 31st Egyptian Dynasties
26th Dynasty - Most of Egypt was in the hands of independent princes however the 25th Dynasty began as a line of Kushite kings based in their capital at Napata
The Persians conquer Egypt in 525BC lead by the Persian king Cambyses II 525 - 522 and establish the 27th Dynasty
|332 BC||332 BC - 641 AD the Greco-Roman Period|
Alexander the Great invades Egypt and establishes the Ptolemaic dynasty 332 BC - 30BC
|332 BC||Alexander the Great conquers Egypt. Alexander the Great occupies Egypt and his general, Ptolemy, becomes king and founds a dynasty. The city of Alexandria was founded and became famous for the Great Library and the great Lighthouse of Alexandria which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.|
|196BC||The Rosetta Stone is carved|
|51 BC||51-30 BC - Cleopatra VII reigns and became the mistress of Julius Caesar and gave birth to his son, Octavian. |
|37 BC||37 BC Queen Cleopatra marries Mark Antony|
|31 BC||31 BC Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra in the sea Battle of Actium|
|30 BC||The Roman Period|
30 BC Egypt becomes a province of the Roman Empire from 30BC - 641 AD
|384 AD||Theodosius ordered the adherence to Christianity|
|395 AD||The Roman empire split into West and East and Egypt became part of the Byzantine Empire|
|642 AD||642 AD The Arabs captured Alexandria and Egypt became a part of the Islamic Empire|
|868||868 - 969 The Tulunid and the Ikhshidid dynasty rule Egypt|
|969||Fatimid rulers seized Egypt and founded the Egyptian city Al-Qahirah (modern day Cairo)|