Short Biography, Information & Facts about Ramses III, the famous pharaoh and king of Egypt
Biography, Facts and information about the life of a Pharaoh
The term pharaoh was the title of an ancient Egyptian king who was considered to be a liIIIng god and worshipped as a deity. The pharaoh was an absolute ruler of Egypt, both the political and religious leader.
Short Biography of the life of Ramses III
The history, facts and information about Ramses III, a famous pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. The following biography information provides basic facts about the life Ramses III:
- Ramses III was also known as Rameses and Ramesses which are alternative spellings of the name
- Egyptian Period / Kingdom: New Kingdom
- Dynasty: Ramses III ruled in the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty
- Name of Previous Pharaoh: Setnakhte 1186 BC – 1182 BC
- Years of Reign: 1182 BC – 1151 BC
- Succeeded by: Ramses IV 1151 BC – 1145 BC
- Father and Mother: His father was the previous Pharaoh Setnakhte and his mother was Queen Tiy-merenese
- Wives and children: His wives were Tey aka Tiy who was the mother of his son, Pentaweret. Another wife called Iset Ta-Hemdjert who was the mother of his son and heir to the throne, who became Ramses IV.
- Year of Death: 1151 BC
- Location of the Burial Site: Valley of the Kings
- Tomb reference number: KV11
- Name of Egyptologist who discovered the burial site, or tomb, of Ramses III: Bruce's Tomb named after James Bruce who entered the tomb in 1768
- Biography and accomplishments or why Ramses III was famous: Pharaoh Ramses III was the second king of the 20th Dynasty ruling during a turbulent time in Ancient history which included the Trojan War. During his reign there were economic problems and the workmen at Deir el-Medina were not paid which lead to the first general strike in recorded history.
- But Ramses III is best remembered for the Royal Harem Conspiracy against him. Ramses IV had two chief wives - Tey aka Tiy who was the mother of his son, Pentaweret and Iset Ta-Hemdjert who was the mother of his son and heir to the throne, who became Ramses IV. Iset is an Ancient Egyptian name, meaning "(She) of the throne". It was the name of the goddess better known by her Greek name Isis. This wife is often referred to by the name Isis.
- The Royal Harem Conspiracy: This conspiracy was documented in trial transcripts. Queen Tiy wanted her son to become Pharaoh, rather than Iset's son. The objective was to murder the pharaoh and place Pentaweret on the throne. The conspiracy was started by Queen Tiy and Prince Pentaweret who involved at least 40 other people in the plot and conspiracy. These other conspirators included nobles, servants, scribes, court officials, army officers and women and inspectors of the harem. The assassination attempt was planned to take place during the annual Opet Festival at Thebes. The method chosen for the assassination attempt was unknown. And the mummy of Ramses III showed no sign of violation. However, the Pharaoh did die at this time and poison is the suspected means of murder. The trial of the conspirators was ordered by Ramses III before his death - he took two weeks to die. The conspirators were found guilty and sentenced according to their ranks. The punishments included mutilation, execution or the option to commit suicide for Queen Tiy, Pentaweret and the highest ranking officials.
- Method of execution: The punishment was to be burnt to death. This was a terrible punishment as it meant that the victims would not be able to pass into the afterlife. Instead their ashes would be scattered to the winds and trampled underfoot. The choice of suicide usually ended with poison.
- Unknown Man E: There is some speculation that the mummy called 'Unknown Man E' found in 1881 in Tomb DB320 along with Ramses III and a cache of ten other pharaohs is in fact the mummy of Pentaweret. The face of this mummy is contorted into a terrible grimace, as if he were screaming, and the muscles of his abdomen were severely constricted. His organs had not been removed, preventing his existence in the afterlife. Was he buried alive? Did he die of poison? Was the mummy Pentaweret? No one knows for sure...
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